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Historic Culture

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Jiaxing is the cradle of Majiabang Culture of the Neolithic Age, and the ancient people had already engaged here in agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery, and hunting in the city area 7000 years ago. During the Spring and Autumn Period, this area was called Changshui, as well as Zuiyong where the two states of Wu and Yue contended for hegemony. During the Warring States Period, it was merged into the boundary of Chu State. It had set up Youquan County and Haiyan County in Qin Dynasty, subordinate to Kuaiji County. It had become famous for salt and grains in the times of West Han and East Han dynasties. During the period of the Three Kingdoms when Wu State ruled in the eastern part of the River, the southern part of Youquan County and the western part of Haiyan County were separately merged into Yanguan County. In the 3rd year of Huanglong in Wu State (231), the wild rice grew on itself in Youquan County, and Sun Quan, the Grand Emperor of Wu State took it as an auspicious sign and renamed Youquan as Hexing, literarily meaning flourishing crops, and it was renamed Jiaxing meaning auspicious and flourishing in the 5th year under Chiwu’s reign. During the West Jin and East Jin dynasties as well as Northern and Southern Dynasties, Jiaxing had experienced further growth, and had become a place where the harvest for one season could feed people of a number of neighboring counties. The Jiangnan River, namely the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to Zhenjiang, began to be excavated in Sui Dynasty, which had brought advantage to Jiaxing in irrigation and water transportation. In the 10th year of Tianbao under Tang Xuan Zong’s reign (751), the eastern part of Jiaxing County and some parts governed by Haiyan, Kunsha, and other counties were split to set up Huating County. By Tang Dynasty, 27 places of wasteland had been opened up into fields for growing food crops in Jiaxing and it has been historically recorded that Jiaxing had become one of the three major food crop growing regions in the western part of Zhejiang, from which we can see that Jiaxing had then become an import food producing region in southeastern part of the country, as well as proved by a saying in those days that a bumper harvest of Jiaxing could bring a healthy life to people in Jiangsu Province and Anhui Province; while with a poor harvest in Jiaxing, the people of Jiangsu and Anhui provinces would suffer from starvation. During the period of Ten States and Five Dynasties, Wuyue State set up Kaiyuan City, governing the three counties of Jiaxing, Haiyan, and Huating, with Jiaxing to be set with a regime of city level for the first time. Later in the 5th year of Tianfu under Jin Gao Zu’s reign (940), Xiuzhou was set up in Jiaxing, to govern the four counties of Jiaxing, Haiyan, Huating, and Chongde, as proposed by Qian Yuan Guan, the King of Wuyue State. Xiuzhou was restructured into Jiahe County in Northern Song Dynasty, upgraded to a cityship in the first year of Qingyun, Ningzong in the Southern Song Dynasty, and re-shaped as Jiaxing Army later on. In the 13th year of Zhiyuan, under Yuan Shi Zu’s rule in Yuan Dynasty (1276), Jiaxing Army was reorganized as Department of Appease of Jiaxing City, promoted as the managing governmental office for Jiaxing Line. During the Song and Yuan dynasties, Jiaxing had already shown a relatively more developed economy, proved by the sayings such as techniques and skills of all trades were equivalent to those of Suzhou and Hangzhou, etc., and It was the most flourished foreign trading region in the western part of Zhejiang Province at that point. Frequent foreign trading events had been seen in Zhapu, Ganpu, Qinglong, and other ports, with thriving sea transportation. In the 5th year of Xuande in Ming Dynasty (1430), the northwestern part of Jiaxing County was separately merged into Xiushui County and its northeastern part into Jiashan County; Haiyan County was divided to set up Pinghu County; Chongde County was divided to set up Tongxiang County, for Jiaxing City to govern 7 counties, known as one city and seven counties. The system of Jiaxing County of city level had been changed no more within four or five hundred years afterwards. In the meantime, on the basis of development with agriculture and handicraft industry, its commodity economy had experienced an increasing prosperity. Cotton cloth and silk were well sold to all parts of the country, as far as overseas. Silk of Jingzhen Town, in Wangjiang of Jiaxing had a good name described by people as silk cloth and quilts were then already famous throughout the world. Jiashan had unexhausted yarn of Xitiang Town. The high production capacity of silk made by Puyuanzhen Town of Tongxiang, and so on. For many folk sayings as such, these places in Jiaxing had become famous near and far. According to the record of “Annals of Jiaxing City”, Jiaxing had become a big city in the western part of Zhejiang, and it had become a metropolis in the eastern part of the River. At the early stage of Qing Dynasty, reform and rectification of taxes had been launched by Qing Government, and the sea embankments along the seashore of Hangzhou Bay had been reconstructed repeatedly, so that Jiaxing’s social and economic situation had continuously changed for the better, and the city and towns turned to be more and more prosperous. In the 10th year under Xianfeng’ reign in Qing Dynasty (1860), the Taiping Army captured Jiaxing, and Tingwang Government Office was set as the leading body for local military and political administration. After the middle stage of Qing Dynasty, Jiaxing’s economy and city look had declined and withered day by day for being plundered by imperialism and exploited by feudalism. On November 7, 1911, partisans of the Revolution of 1911 recovered Jiaxing and founded the Jiaxing Stratocracy Affiliated Government. At the early stage of the Republic of China, the governmentship of Jiaxing was abolished with the countyship survived to be renamed Jiahe County, and named again as Jiaxing County later on. In early August of 1921, the First National Congress of CPC was concluded on a sightseeing boat on Jiaxing’s South Lake, declaring the birth of the CPC.

Jiaxing was liberated on May 7, 1949, set as Jiaxing County and Jiaxing City separately, followed by frequent administrative cancellations and merges. In August 1983, the officeship of Jiaxing prefectural government was cancelled to separately set Jiaxing City and Huzhou City, and Jiaxing City set up Urban District and Suburban District, governing five counties of Jiashan, Pinghu, Tongxiang, Haining, and Haiyan. In January 1985, approved by the Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council, Jiaxing City District and its subordinate Jiashan County, Tongxiang County, and Haining County were listed as the economic open areas of the Yangtze River Delta, and Jiaxing City as well as all its five subordinate counties had been listed as economic open areas up to 1988. In November 1993, Jiaxing City District was renamed Xiucheng District. On June 21, 1999, Jiaxing Suburb District was renamed Xiuzhou District, and in 2005 Xiucheng District of Jiaxing was renamed Nanhu District.

 

 

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